The Role Of The Brain In Addiction

Technology has its mighty hand over every field in the world now. And since the base of technology is science, so how could medical sector not undergo changes! Neuroscience has always been an area of immense complexities and curiosities. Advances in this sector has allowed doctors to dig deeper into the brain and even study minutest of changes that happen due to substance intake.

When we talk about addiction as a brain disease, the reward system of the brain plays a very important role.

Physiologically, limbic system is the brain’s reward system. Mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways (Mid-brain) have our cognitive control and functions which would be both reward related and aversion related. Reward related functions are always stronger and more motivating than aversion, hence drug abuse behavior is stronger in addicts. The reward system connects certain structures in such a way that they generate the feeling of pleasure for certain behaviors or stimulus given to the body. In day-to-day life, it is activated by healthy, life-sustaining activities like eating and socializing. But ‘Drug Abuse’ is another behavior that generates euphoria, which is enjoyed by the mind. And human nature is to repeat those actions that give us some definite satisfaction. The limbic system does more than just giving a reward response. For any behavior to be reinforced, it has to be first registered as pleasant to the mind and body. Limbic system in the brain recognizes our positive and negative emotions, which very well explains, how our body and mind get dependent on any psychoactive mood altering substance.

However, with recent developments, neurobiology has been able to study how addiction is related to the brain. Researchers and scientists studied the brain’s reaction to different substances and discovered that drug abuse actually alters the chemical makeup of the brain, which is what causes addiction and they named it as a ‘Brain Disease.’

Since the brain is placed as the epicenter of human activity, it is the initiation point of every phenomenon that occurs. Whatever we feel, experience or think, all is first registered by the brain and within lesser than nanoseconds, it commands us to act. It communicates through neurons, neurotransmitters, receptors and transporters. Yes, it is very complicated and sounds mystical too (specially to people like me who have not studied biology after high school)

How do Drugs Affect the Brain?
Psychoactive substances interrupt with the communication systems of the brain. They interfere with the way a message is transmitted and sent to its defined destination. No matter how much people say that cannabis would not be called a drug, it is a plant, but the reality remains unchanged, which is, that everything has certain chemical composition. For example, Heroin and Marijuana’s chemical structure are like copies of a natural neurotransmitter. Amphetamines mimic catecholamine neurotransmitters, causing general physiological changes which prepare the body for physical activity and fight-or-flight response. So, the moment the body is intoxicated with a drug containing amphetamines or its derivatives, it starts reacting in unnatural ways by raising blood pressure, increased alertness resulting in sleeplessness, blood glucose levels. They can easily activate neurons, giving various directions to the body to react in a different way, than would a natural neurotransmitter would! Cocaine can make a person delirious, because it releases natural neurotransmitters in bulk and blocks the natural recycling process of neurotransmitters by the brain. Amphetamine causes drug tolerance very quickly and rapidly too.

Chronic addictive drug use causes alterations in the process by which information from a gene is used to synthesize a gene product- RNA or Protein. Nigrostriatal Pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that plays an extensive and unavoidable role in addiction. It comprises of Transcription Factor, which is a protein that controls what all information has to go from the DNA to the messenger RNA. Psychoactive substances block, many of the neural and behavioral alterations that are to be taken to the RNA. Altered dopamine transmission is the first thing that comes to notice in cases of drug abuse.

These have been many studies extensively done by medical science researchers on addiction. There is a wide range of chemicals that people use to reach a euphoric state. But the gist of it all is, that they play with the normal functioning of brain by altering the natural chemicals that ought to be there.

How Does the Reward System Work?
Whenever a person happens to do something that takes him to a different state of mind for a while, like reaching the oomph point in a sexually pleasurable activity, treating the taste buds with a new and a very different flavor or winning an excessive amount of money or any other valuable resource that he could use to be really rich, the brain takes it all in the same way. It activates the same gland and releases the same chemical Dopamine, which functions as a neurotransmitter, in all scenarios that seem to be pleasurable or exciting. Similarly, whenever the body receives an antibody that becomes too exciting for it like any drug, chemical or alcohol, the body releases certain amount of dopamine or cuts down its level. It is a problematic scenario is there is too much or too little of dopamine released by the brain. Drugs are addictive because they release up-to 10 times more dopamine than a natural neurotransmitter can! But when the body gets tolerant to the same drug and its amount, it can even cut down its normal release of dopamine!

Anti-Ageing – Dermal Fillers Help to Keep The Signs of Ageing to a Minimum

Dermal fillers are very effective in both men and women, filling depressions on the face, hands and body. Injectable fillers are the perfect way to enhance your facial features, because they can help to fill hollows, plump up thin lips, soften folds and wrinkles on the face and improve scars and other facial defects.

Fillers can help to fill out smokers lines around the lips, the nasolabial lines that run from the nose to the corners of the mouth, smile lines, crows feet and forehead furrows. Fillers are also ideal to add volume to sunken cheeks and weak chins, as well as reshaping the tip of the nose, and filling out deeper acne scars.

The ageing process begins when we are about 25 and over the next decade:

Skin cell turnover slows down and dead cells remain on the skin creating a dull appearance
Early wrinkles can begin to appear around the eyes
The lines from the nose to mouth become more prominent
The jaw line begins to soften

From age 35 to 45

Lines and wrinkles will deepen, and frown lines can give your face an angry look
Your skin type may change, from oily to dry or vice versa
Pigmentation changes on your skin

From age 45 onwards

In menopause, oestrogen levels decrease, causing collagen to deplete
Volume loss causes sunken cheeks
The skin can become dry and dehydrated
Pigmentation will become more visible
The face begins to drop and sag
The jaw area loses definition

Getting wrinkles and creases on the face is part of the ageing process, and they begin to appear as the collagen and elastin fibres break down, but they can also result from excessive frowning, smiling or squinting.

Dynamic lines

Dynamic are when lines, wrinkles and other signs of ageing occur on the face when it’s in motion. They’re also called expression lines; laughter lines, frown lines and bunny lines, which are harmless at a younger age but will often contribute to where the deeper set wrinkles and folds will remain in later life.

Static lines

Static lines are noticeable wrinkles, lines, sagging and folds which are present on the resting face; sagging jaw line, nasal folds, sunken cheeks and horizontal forehead lines. These lines, if left untreated, will stay on the face and will progressively worsen.

Dermal Fillers are a temporary solution, as the hyaluronic acid in the fillers is naturally degradable, and is naturally broken down and eventually absorbed by the body. Fillers are effective at restoring hydration to the skin, smoothing lines and wrinkles and can also restore and enhance the facial shape. The fillers last around 9 to 12 months, although this may vary from person to person, depending on their lifestyle and which part of the face gets injected.

If you need help choosing a cosmetic procedure, we provide an extensive range of cosmetic procedures for the face and body: Botox, Vaser Lipo, Lip Augmentation, Dermal Fillers and many more treatments, to help create a younger, slimmer, more youthful looking you!

Cosmetic Surgery is Now a Thriving Sector

Cosmetic Surgery is not a New Term

Cosmetic surgery needs no introduction in today’s world where more of us are becoming more conscious to look beautiful. Indeed, you cannot say it is only the celebrities who want to look beautiful to stay in the glamour business. Common people like you and me also want to look equally attractive like a top heroine.

Defining This Type of Surgery

It is basically reconstructing a defective part of your body. For example, you have a flat thick nose. You are not happy with it and want a symmetrical nose. So, through cosmetic surgery you can enhance your nose to make it look right. Also, through this type of surgery, the surgeons will reshape your nose in such a way it perfectly balances with the face. Again, there are many people who have a nose that obstructs airway. A cosmetic surgeon can easily correct obstructed airway for proper breathing.

Worldwide Boom of Cosmetic Surgery

You cannot trace the time since people from all across the globe started looking for experienced surgeons to do different types of plastic surgery. There are a good number of hospitals and private health clinics that have experienced surgeons and state of the art facilities to give the best possible attention and care to patients trying to look attractive and younger. It is not only the celebrities who are spending large amount of money to enhance their looks or correct a birthmark. There are teenagers, executives and even housewives who are flocking at this health centers in large numbers to know more about cosmetic surgery, how much it cost and the result post-surgery. This type of surgical procedure is minimally invasive. The centers have some exceptionally talented cosmetic surgeons with years of experience. The surgeons do their best to make people look beautiful and enhance their look and confidence through minimally invasive procedures.

Low Fees and Surgery Costs

These days many health clinics perform cosmetic surgeries at a low-cost. In minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopy, the surgeon makes a small hole in the abdomen. It is also less painful and the patient heals quickly.

Types of Cosmetic Surgery

Nose reshaping: People with a flat nose, protruding nostrils, nose with narrow air passage go for this type of surgery. Also known as rhinoplasty, it helps to correct the nose shape as well as clear the airway to make breathing a hassle-free task.

Facial surgery: The doctors boost the aesthetic aspects of your face, mouth, teeth and jaws through skin, muscle, bones and cartilage grafting.

Arm lifting: Brachioplasty is a surgical procedure to correct your upper arms. Many people have excess fat on their upper arms and they are unhappy with it. They can go to a cosmetic surgeon to remove the excess fat and skin from their underarms.

Breast enlargement and reduction: If you have a small breast, you can enlarge it through minimally invasive surgical procedure. Again, if someone has large breasts they can cut the same through cosmetic surgery to boost their look and confidence.

Eyelid surgery: Surgeons removes fat and excess skin from the upper eyelids to improve eyesight.

Liposuction: In spite of dieting and regular exercise, the excess fat in your body does not burn. Liposuction helps to remove fat deposits.

Tummy Tucking: Doctors make small incisions in the abdomen to remove excess skin and fat. Muscles are then tightened to give a younger look.